``` ```

Reshaping data frames using pivot functions from {tidyr} and tally from {dplyr}

Demonstrating methods for changing the shape of data frames (number of columns and rows) using the #TidyTuesday data set for week 27 of 2022 (5/7/2022): ‚ÄúSan Francisco Rentals‚ÄĚ

Ronan Harrington https://github.com/rnnh/
2022-07-05

Introduction

In this post, the San Francisco Rentals data set is used to demonstrate data reshaping in R. This involves changing the number of columns and rows in a data frame to fit a given use case. A data frame is made more tall or narrow by decreasing the number of columns, and wider by increasing the number of columns. The three reshaping methods covered in this article are:

Data frames created with these methods were used to make two plots:

Setup

Loading the R libraries and data set.

# Loading libraries
library(tidytuesdayR)
library(tidyverse)
library(tidytext)
library(ggthemes)

# Loading data
tt <- tt_load("2022-07-05")

    Downloading file 1 of 3: `rent.csv`
    Downloading file 2 of 3: `sf_permits.csv`
    Downloading file 3 of 3: `new_construction.csv`

Reshaping a data frame by summarising variables

# Printing a summary of the San Francisco (SF) permits data frame
tt$sf_permits
# A tibble: 86,103 √ó 44
   permit_number permit_type permit_type_definiti… permit_creation_da…
           <dbl>       <dbl> <chr>                 <dttm>             
 1    2000010368           3 additions alteration… 2000-01-03 00:00:00
 2    2000010353           6 demolitions           2000-01-03 00:00:00
 3    2000010498           3 additions alteration… 2000-01-04 00:00:00
 4    2000010484           3 additions alteration… 2000-01-04 00:00:00
 5    2000010480           3 additions alteration… 2000-01-04 00:00:00
 6    2000010475           3 additions alteration… 2000-01-04 00:00:00
 7    2000010476           3 additions alteration… 2000-01-04 00:00:00
 8    2000010474           3 additions alteration… 2000-01-04 00:00:00
 9    2000010479           3 additions alteration… 2000-01-04 00:00:00
10   20000104173           3 additions alteration… 2000-01-04 00:00:00
# … with 86,093 more rows, and 40 more variables: block <chr>,
#   lot <chr>, street_number <dbl>, street_number_suffix <chr>,
#   street_name <chr>, street_suffix <chr>, unit <dbl>,
#   unit_suffix <chr>, description <chr>, status <chr>,
#   status_date <dttm>, filed_date <dttm>, issued_date <dttm>,
#   completed_date <dttm>, first_construction_document_date <dttm>,
#   structural_notification <chr>, …
# Printing a summary of the shape of the data frame
paste("tt$sf_permits has", nrow(tt$sf_permits), "rows and", ncol(tt$sf_permits),
  "columns.")
[1] "tt$sf_permits has 86103 rows and 44 columns."
# Creating a tall/narrow data set of permits per street
permits_per_street <- tt$sf_permits %>%
  # Selecting variables/columns to keep
  select(permit_type_definition, street_name, permit_number) %>%
  # Grouping the permit numbers by type and street name for counting
  group_by(permit_type_definition, street_name) %>%
  # Counting/tallying the number of permits by type per street
  tally()

# Printing a summary of the permits per street data frame
permits_per_street
# A tibble: 3,053 √ó 3
# Groups:   permit_type_definition [4]
   permit_type_definition           street_name     n
   <chr>                            <chr>       <int>
 1 additions alterations or repairs 01st          196
 2 additions alterations or repairs 02nd          763
 3 additions alterations or repairs 03rd          778
 4 additions alterations or repairs 04th          338
 5 additions alterations or repairs 05th          223
 6 additions alterations or repairs 06th          347
 7 additions alterations or repairs 07th          199
 8 additions alterations or repairs 08th          252
 9 additions alterations or repairs 08th Ti         1
10 additions alterations or repairs 09th          301
# … with 3,043 more rows
# Printing a summary of the shape of the data frame
paste("permits_per_street has", nrow(permits_per_street), "rows and",
  ncol(permits_per_street), "columns.")
[1] "permits_per_street has 3053 rows and 3 columns."

Reshaping a data frame to make it wider with the {tidyr} function pivot wider

# Creating a wider copy of the permits per street data frame
permits_per_street_wider <- permits_per_street %>%
  # Pivoting the street names wider (creating a column for each street) and
  # selecting the "n" variable for the values in this data frame
  pivot_wider(names_from = street_name, values_from = n)

# Printing the wider permits per street data frame
permits_per_street_wider
# A tibble: 4 √ó 1,588
# Groups:   permit_type_definition [4]
  permit_type_defini… `01st` `02nd` `03rd` `04th` `05th` `06th` `07th`
  <chr>                <int>  <int>  <int>  <int>  <int>  <int>  <int>
1 additions alterati…    196    763    778    338    223    347    199
2 demolitions             16     17     72      8      7     17     24
3 new construction         9      9     26      8      3      4     13
4 new construction w…     NA      3     48      3      4      8      7
# … with 1,580 more variables: `08th` <int>, `08th Ti` <int>,
#   `09th` <int>, `10th` <int>, `11th` <int>, `12th` <int>,
#   `13th` <int>, `13th Ti` <int>, `14th` <int>, `15th` <int>,
#   `16th` <int>, `17th` <int>, `18th` <int>, `19th` <int>,
#   `20th` <int>, `21st` <int>, `22nd` <int>, `23rd` <int>,
#   `24th` <int>, `25th` <int>, `25th North` <int>, `26th` <int>,
#   `27th` <int>, `28th` <int>, `29th` <int>, `2nd` <int>, …
# Printing a summary of the shape of the data frame
paste("permits_per_street_wider has", nrow(permits_per_street_wider), "rows and",
  ncol(permits_per_street_wider), "columns.")
[1] "permits_per_street_wider has 4 rows and 1588 columns."

Reshaping a data frame to make it more narrow with the {tidyr} function pivot longer

# Printing a summary of the new construction data frame
tt$new_construction
# A tibble: 261 √ó 10
   cartodb_id the_geom the_geom_webmerca… county  year totalproduction
        <dbl> <lgl>    <lgl>              <chr>  <dbl>           <dbl>
 1          1 NA       NA                 Alame…  1990            3601
 2          2 NA       NA                 Alame…  1991             226
 3          3 NA       NA                 Alame…  1992            2652
 4          4 NA       NA                 Alame…  1993            3049
 5          5 NA       NA                 Alame…  1994            2617
 6          6 NA       NA                 Alame…  1995            3515
 7          7 NA       NA                 Alame…  1996            3179
 8          8 NA       NA                 Alame…  1997            4591
 9          9 NA       NA                 Alame…  1998            6022
10         10 NA       NA                 Alame…  1999            5601
# … with 251 more rows, and 4 more variables: sfproduction <dbl>,
#   mfproduction <dbl>, mhproduction <dbl>, source <chr>
# Printing a summary of the shape of the data frame
paste("tt$new_construction has", nrow(tt$new_construction), "rows and",
  ncol(tt$new_construction), "columns.")
[1] "tt$new_construction has 261 rows and 10 columns."
# Creating a taller/more narrow subset of production type per county
production_per_county <- tt$new_construction %>%
  # Selecting variables/columns from tt$new_construction
  select(county, year, totalproduction, sfproduction, mfproduction,mhproduction) %>%
  # "Lengthening" the data frame by selecting columns to be pivoted to a longer format
  pivot_longer(cols = c(totalproduction, sfproduction, mfproduction, mhproduction)) %>%
  # Creating a copy of the "name" column to the more descriptive "production_type", as the
  # pivoted columns all describe types of production, and removing the original "name"
  # column
  mutate(production_type = name, name = NULL) %>%
  # Changing "production_type" from a character to a factor variable, with more
  # descriptive factor levels
  mutate(production_type = fct_recode(production_type,
    "Total" = "totalproduction", "Single family" = "sfproduction",
    "Multi family" = "mfproduction", "Mobile home" = "mhproduction"))

# Printing a summary of the production per county data frame
production_per_county
# A tibble: 1,044 √ó 4
   county          year value production_type
   <chr>          <dbl> <dbl> <fct>          
 1 Alameda County  1990  3601 Total          
 2 Alameda County  1990  2166 Single family  
 3 Alameda County  1990  1378 Multi family   
 4 Alameda County  1990    57 Mobile home    
 5 Alameda County  1991   226 Total          
 6 Alameda County  1991  -236 Single family  
 7 Alameda County  1991   395 Multi family   
 8 Alameda County  1991    67 Mobile home    
 9 Alameda County  1992  2652 Total          
10 Alameda County  1992  2018 Single family  
# … with 1,034 more rows
# Printing a summary of the shape of the data frame
paste("production_per_county has", nrow(production_per_county), "rows and",
  ncol(production_per_county), "columns.")
[1] "production_per_county has 1044 rows and 4 columns."

Plotting permit type counts per street using a tidy data frame of value counts

# Plotting the top 20 streets with the total number of each permit category
permits_per_street %>%
  slice_max(order_by = n, n = 20) %>%
  mutate(street_name = reorder_within(street_name, n, permit_type_definition)) %>%
  ggplot(aes(x = n, y = street_name, fill = permit_type_definition)) +
  geom_col(show.legend = FALSE) +
  scale_y_reordered() +
  theme_solarized_2() +
  facet_wrap(~permit_type_definition, ncol = 2, scales = "free") +
  labs(title = "Count of construction permits by type per street",
    x = "Tally", y = "Street name")

Plotting annual construction per San Francisco county using a data frame created with pivot longer

# Plotting the annual construction by type per San Francisco county
production_per_county %>%
  ggplot(aes(x = year, y = value,
    colour = fct_reorder2(production_type, year, value))) +
  geom_line() +
  theme_clean() +
  facet_wrap(~county, scales = "free") +
  scale_colour_brewer(palette = "Dark2") +
  scale_x_continuous(breaks =
      seq(min(production_per_county$year), max(production_per_county$year), 8)) +
  geom_vline(xintercept = 2008, linetype = 2, colour = "red", size = 0.4) +
  labs(colour = "Production type", x = "Year", y = "Units",
    title = "Annual construction by type per San Francisco county",
    subtitle = "Red vertical line marks 2008")
In San Francisco county, new construction plateaued in 2008 before plummeting.

Figure 1: In San Francisco county, new construction plateaued in 2008 before plummeting.

Corrections

If you see mistakes or want to suggest changes, please create an issue on the source repository.

Reuse

Text and figures are licensed under Creative Commons Attribution CC BY 4.0. Source code is available at https://github.com/rnnh/TidyTuesday/, unless otherwise noted. The figures that have been reused from other sources don't fall under this license and can be recognized by a note in their caption: "Figure from ...".

Citation

For attribution, please cite this work as

Harrington (2022, July 5). Ronan's #TidyTuesday blog: Reshaping data frames using pivot functions from {tidyr} and tally from {dplyr}. Retrieved from https://tidytuesday.netlify.app/posts/2022-07-05-sf-rents/

BibTeX citation

@misc{harrington2022reshaping,
  author = {Harrington, Ronan},
  title = {Ronan's #TidyTuesday blog: Reshaping data frames using pivot functions from {tidyr} and tally from {dplyr}},
  url = {https://tidytuesday.netlify.app/posts/2022-07-05-sf-rents/},
  year = {2022}
}